The Chet includes a slight gutteral sound. the "ch" sound in the name of the composer Bach is the sound the Chet makes.
Written Hebrew in Israel leaves out the Nikkud (vowel symbols). The word in context indicates how a letter should be pronounced. Also, modern Hebrew has many words which are not in the Torah/Tanakh, such as telephone. Hebrew script (cursive) is used widely throughout Israel, though it is not covered in these lessons.
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